Fungal Glossary

Mold is a fungus and understanding its biological function is essential to understanding why mold poses health hazards. For the purposes of mold inspections and remediation, one of our goals is to identify whether or not the mold is allergenic, pathogenic, or toxigenic.

1. Allergenic Molds
Not usually life-threatening but are most problematic for individuals with allergies or asthma. The challenge is figuring out what mold is triggering the reaction. Children are particularly susceptible to mold allergies.

2. Pathogenic Molds
Produce an infection of particular concern if your immune system is weak or compromised. This type of mold can cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, an acute response resembling bacterial pneumonia. An example is Aspergillus fumigatus, which can grow in the lungs of immune-compromised individuals.

3. Toxigenic Molds (aka “toxic molds”)
Toxigenic molds produce mycotoxins that will make anyone sick. Possible reactions include immune suppression and cancer. Mycotoxins are chemical toxins present within or on the surface of the mold spore, which can be inhaled, ingested, or touched. An example of this is aflatoxin, one of the most potent carcinogens known to mankind. Aflatoxin grows on peanuts and grains, and on some other foods.

(EMSL Fungal Glossary referenced below is available for download Here)

Natural Habitat
♦ Soil
♦ Decaying vegetation
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Often found in stored grains
♦ Other foods
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Air / wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Recognized as an allergen
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ In immunocompromised patients pulmonary invasions, the meninges (brain or spinal chord), and kidney infections can result from Absidia exposure Absidia may also cause zygomycosis in immunocompromised patients (AIDS).
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Absidia often causes food spoilage
References
♦ Mohammed S, Sahoo TP, Jayshree RS, Bapsy PP, Hema S. Sino-oral zygomycosis due to Absidia corymbifera in a patient with acute leukemia. 2004. Med. Mycol. 42(5): 475-478.
Natural Habitat
♦ Found in decaying or dead plant materials
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Food
♦ Commonly encountered in wet, cellulose-based building materials
Water Activity
♦ Grows well indoors when there is high water content (>0.90 Aw).
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Insect/water droplet
♦ Older spores can be dislodged by wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Known to cause hyalohyphomycosis, keratitis, mycetoma, and onychomycosis
♦ Also known to cause infections in immunodeficient patients
♦ Causes infections in persons with wound injuries
Industrial Uses
♦ Cephalosporins
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Trichothecene mycotoxins
Other Comments
♦ There are 100 known species
Natural Habitat
♦ Bark mulch
♦ Wood chips
♦ Iceplant
♦ Grass
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Agrocybe aegerita is a delicious edible mushroom cultivated commercially as “Louisiana Roman Mushroom”
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Thought to cause white rot
♦ No Agrocybe species should be considered edible since they are hard to identify, and could be confused with several poisonous mushrooms
Natural Habitat
♦ Common saprobe and pathogen of plants. Typically found on plant tissue, decaying wood, and foods.
♦ Soil
♦ Air outdoors
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Indoors near condensation (window frames, showers)
♦ House dust (in carpets, and air)
♦ Also colonizes building supplies, computer disks, cosmetics, leather, optical instruments, paper, sewage, stone monuments, textiles, wood pulp, and jet fuel
Water Activity
♦ Aw =0.85-0.88
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Phaeohyphomycosis {causing cystic granulomas in the skin and subcutaneous tissue}
♦ In immunocompetent patients, Alternaria colonizes the paranasal sinuses, leading to chronic hypertrophic sinusitis
Industrial Uses
♦ Biocontrol of weed plants Biocontrol fungal plant pathogens
♦ Biocontrol fungal plant pathogens
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Alternariol (AOH)
♦ Alternariol monomethylether (AME)
♦ Tenuazonic acid (TeA)
♦ Altenuene (ALT)
♦ Altertoxins (ATX)
Other Comments
♦ Alternaria spores are one of the most common and potent indoor and outdoor airborne allergens. Additionally, Alternaria sensitization has been determined to be one of the most important factors in the onset of childhood asthma. Synergy with Cladosporium or Ulocladium may increase the severity of symptoms
Natural Habitat
♦ Causal agent of flower blight and stem rot on Poinsettia plants.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Poinsettia
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ A. album parasitizes Puccinia graminis (Wheat Rust)
♦ Cereal based poultry feed
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Edible mushrooms
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Can cause crop loss in mushroom growing crop houses with high humidity
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant material
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Cellulose containing materials
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Arthrinium sphaerospermum is recognized as an allergen
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Not known as a pathogen
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA)
♦ Terpestacin
References
♦ Xingjie L, Xueyun L, Wenjuan H. 1992. Studies on the epidemiology and etiology of moldy sugarcane poisoning in China. Biomed Environ Sci. 5 (2): 161-177.
♦ Ming L. 1995. Moldy sugarcane poisoning–a case report with a brief review. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 33(4): 363-367.
♦ Oka M, Iimura S, Tenmyo O, Sawada Y, Sugawara M, Ohkusa N, Yamamoto H, Kawano K, Hu SL, Fukagawa Y. 1993. Terpestacin, a new syncytium formation inhibitor from Arthrinium sp. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 46(3):367-373.
Natural Habitat
♦ Many Basidiomycetes form arthrospores during their mycelial stage.
Geotrichum and Oidiodendron are typical ascomycete arthrospore formers. Arthrospores are formed by microfungi, and yeast-like fungi. Please refer to individual descriptions of these fungi for more information.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
♦ Soil
♦ Textiles
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Depends on genera and species
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Depends on genera and species
Additional Comments
♦ Arthrospores are disarticulated cells of a formerly vegetative filament that function as spores
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant debris
♦ Dung
♦ Moss
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Biological control agent against plant pathogenic nematodes
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Additional Comments
♦ Predacious fungi:
Captures nematodes in a network of sticky and constricting rings.
Natural Habitat
♦ Everywhere in nature
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Depends on genus and species
Water Activity
♦ Depends on genus and species
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Forcible ejection or passive release and dissemination by wind or insects
Allergenic Potential
♦ Depends on genus and species
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Depends on genus and species
Industrial Uses
♦ Depends on genus and species
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Depends on genus and species
Other Comments
♦ Ascospores are the result of sexual reproduction and produced in a saclike structure called an ascus. All ascospores belong to members of the Phylum Ascomycota, which encompasses a plethora of genera worldwide.
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying timber
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Wet sheetrock
♦ Straw
♦ Wood
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ A. amphitricha produces the antifungal ascosteroside
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Anamorphic/asexual state of Dicyma (see Dicyma)
Natural Habitat
♦ Soil
♦ Plant debris
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Grows on a wide range of substrates indoors
♦ Prevalent in water damaged buildings
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.75-0.94
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which is common in asthmatic and cystic fibrosis patients
♦ Aspergillus sinusitis
♦ Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Aspergilloma and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in people with lung disease
Industrial Uses
♦ A. sojae is used for fermented food and beverages in Asia
♦ A. oryzae is used in soy sauce production
♦ A. terreus produces mevinolin which is able reduce blood cholesterol
♦ A. niger produces enzymes used to make some breads and beers and is also used in plastic decomposition
♦ A. niger and A. ochraceus are used in cortisone production
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ 3-Nitropropionic acid, 5-metoxystermatocystin, Aflatoxin B1, B2, Aflatoxin G1, G2, Aflatoxin M1, M2, Aflatoxin P1, Aflatoxin Q1, Aflatoxins, Aflatrem (alkaloid), Aflatrem (indole alkaloid), Aflavinin, Ascalidol, Aspergillic acid, Aspergillomarasmin, Aspertoxin, Asteltoxin, Austamid, Austdiol, Austins, Austocystins, Avenaciolide, Brevianamide A, Candidulin, Citreoviridin,, Citrinin, Clavatol, Cyclopiazonic acid, Cyclopiazonic acid, Cytochalasin E, Emodin, Fumagillin, Fumigaclavine A, Fumigatin, Fumitremorgens, Fumitremorgin A, Gliotoxin, Griseofulvin, Helvolic acid, Kojic acid, Kotanin, Malformins, Naphtopyrones, Neoaspergillic acid, Nidulin, Nidulotoxin, Nigragillin, Ochratoxin A, Ochratoxin B, Ochratoxin C, Ochratoxins ß, Ochratoxins a, Ochratoxins (A,B,C.a, ß.), Orlandin, Oryzacidin, Paspaline, Patulin, Penicillic acid, Phthioic acid, Secalonic acid A, B, D and F, Sphingofungins, Spinulosin, Sterigmatocystin, Terphenyllin, Terredional, Terreic acid, Terrein, Terretonin, Terretonin, Territrem A, Tryptoquivalines, Verruculogen, Versicolorin A, Viomellein, Viriditoxin, Xanthocillin, Xanthomegnin, ß-nitropropionic acid
Other Comments
♦ It is the second most common opportunistic pathogen following Candida
Natural Habitat
♦ Soils
♦ Plant leaf and stem tissue
♦ Wood
♦ Fresh Water
♦ Plant Debris
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Damp areas including kitchens, bathrooms, grout, and shower curtains
♦ Painted interior surfaces and textiles
♦ Skin and nails of people
Water Activity
♦ Grows well where moisture accumulates (88.5 RH on woodchip wallpaper)
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Water droplets, rain
♦ Wind when spores become dry
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (asthma and hay fever)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
♦ Skin irritant causing dermatitis
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Keratomycosis
♦ Phaehyphomycosis
♦ Pulmonary mycosis with sepsis
Industrial Uses
♦ A. pullulans produces pullulan which is used for packaging food and drugs
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Tree Bark
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Forest floors
♦ Lawns
♦ Plants (saprobes or pathogens depending on genus)
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Depends on genus
♦ Wood products
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Forcible ejection
♦ Wind currents
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Depends on genus
Industrial Uses
♦ Edible mushrooms are used in the food industry
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Amanitins
♦ monomethyl-hydrazine
♦ muscarine
♦ ibotenic acid
♦ psilocybin
Other Comments
♦ Basidiospores are the result of sexual reproduction and formed on a structure called the basidium. Basidiospores belong to the members of the Phylum Basidiomycota, which includes mushrooms, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts.
Natural Habitat
♦ Entomopathogen that lives in soil and detritus before colonizing an insect host
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Insects
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (asthma and hay fever)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Hyalohyphomycosis
Industrial Uses
♦ Biocontrol agent of insects
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Leaf litter of tropical plants Also found in temperate regions on natural flora e.g. it was found on a PAAA nature hike in San Diego, therefore “Widespread”.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Houseplants
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant saprophyte
♦ Plant pathogen of many plants, causing leaf rot, crown rot, and root rot on warm season turf grasses.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ House plants
♦ Indoor building materials
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Allergic and chronic invasive sinusitis
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ B. australiensis, B. hawaiiensis and B. spicifera have been shown to cause:
♦ cerebral and disseminated infections
♦ peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) mycotic keratitis
♦ subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (in both normal and immunocompromised people)
♦ sinusitis
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Sterigmatocystin
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant pathogen causing many tropical fruit diseases including mango twig blight and mango stem rot.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Corneal Ulcer
♦ Keratitis
♦ Onychomycosis
♦ Phaeohyphomycosis
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Synonym of Lasiodiplodia theobromae
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant pathogen responsible for causing gray mold (B. cinerea) on grapes, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries , low bush blueberries, lettuce, cabbage, and onions
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Houseplants
♦ Fruits
♦ Vegetables
Water Activity
♦ Aw 0.93-0.95
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
♦ Rain
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (asthma and hay fever)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Endophyte of stargrass (Cynodon dactylon)
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Can be used as an anti-fungal agent in animal feed
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ 15-azahomosterols
Natural Habitat
♦ Normal inhabitant of the skin, mouth, and vagina
♦ Leaves
♦ Flowers
♦ Soil
♦ Water
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Can be passed to newborns from their mothers
♦ It is also sometimes passed from catheters or prosthetic devices to patients
Allergenic Potential
♦ Candida has been reported as an allergen
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Candidiasis (infections cased by Candida spp.), typically occurs in people with some predisposing factor such as pregnancy, disease (diabetes, AIDS, cancer)
♦ Occurs often in patients taking drugs such as oral contraceptives and antibiotics
Natural Habitat
♦ Ambrosia beetle tunnels on trees
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant pathogen causing wilt disease on cacao, Ficus, mango, and oak and causes cankers on a variety of plants.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Wood (lumber) Lumberyard fungi
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Insects
♦ Water splash
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant parasite causing leaf spot
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Water Activity
♦ Moderate –High humidity
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Irrigation water
♦ Insects
♦ Rain
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
♦ Seeds
♦ Soil
♦ Straw
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
♦ Sheetrock
♦ Wallpaper
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.84-0.89
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
♦ Insects
♦ Water splash
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (asthma and hay fever)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Onychomycosis
♦ C. perlucidum recognized as a new agent of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis.
Industrial Uses
♦ Cellulase production
♦ Textile testing
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Chaetomin
♦ Chaetoglobosins A,B,D and F are produced by Chaetomium globosum
♦ Sterigmatocystin is produced by rare species
Natural Habitat
♦ Causal agent of soft rot on a variety of vegetable crops (especially cucurbits)
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Rotting vegetables
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Insects
♦ Water Splash
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Soil or vermiculite from house plants
♦ Damp wood
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Additional Comments
♦ Contaminant of crop mushroom
Natural Habitat
♦ Fruit
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Bread
♦ Fruit
♦ Coffee grounds
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Air currents
Allergenic Potential
♦ Found to induce asthma in loggers
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Related to (mitosporic state) Neurospora, a genetic model organism
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Commonly referred to as red bread mold
References
♦ Tarlo SM, Wai Y, Dolovich J, and Summerbell R. 1996. Occupational Asthma induced by Chrysonilia sitophila in the logging industry. J. Allergy Clin Immunol. 97(6): 1409-1413.
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant materials
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ In immunocompromised patients it can cause:
♦ Skin infections
♦ Onychomycosis
♦ Systemic infection
♦ Osteomyelitis
♦ Endocarditis
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ TMC-69 (Anti-tumor antibiotic)
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Dead plant matter
♦ Straw
♦ Soil
♦ Woody Plants
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Fiberglass duct liner
♦ Paint
♦ Textiles
♦ Found in high concentration in water-damaged building materials
Water Activity
♦ Aw 0.84-0.88
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Air
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (asthma and hay fever)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Edema
♦ keratitis
♦ onychomycosis
♦ pulmonary infections
♦ sinusitis
Industrial Uses
♦ Produces 10 antigens
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Cladosporin
♦ Emodin
Natural Habitat
♦ Plants (acting as saprophyte and pathogen)
♦ Other fungi
♦ Lichens
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Ceiling Tiles
♦ Floor Tiles
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Insects
♦ Water Splash
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Genera dependant
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Additional Comments
♦ These are asexual fungi that form conidia in pycnidia or acervuli (asexual fruiting structures). Examples of Coelomycete fungi include Phoma and Pestalotia
Natural Habitat
♦ Wood
♦ Dung
♦ Leaf litter
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Popular experimental organism in genetic research
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Coprine
Natural Habitat
♦ Soil contaminated with pigeon droppings or chicken droppings
♦ Decaying wood & slime fluxes
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Air (wind) Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcosis (also known as meningoencephalitis) in immunocompromised people
♦ The disease also occurs in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Cheese
♦ Brazil Nuts
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Cunninghamella bertholletiae is known to cause rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneoarticular, and disseminated forms of zygomycosis in immunocompromised or trauma patients.
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant saprobe and pathogen to cereal plants
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
♦ Wood products
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (asthma and hay fever)
♦ A relatively common cause of allergic fungal sinusitis
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ In immunocompromised patients:
♦ cerebral abscess
♦ endocarditis
♦ mycetoma
♦ ocular keratitis
♦ onychomycosis
♦ pneumonia
♦ sinusitis
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Cytochalasin B
Other Comments
♦ All Curvularia species are genetically Bipolaris
Natural Habitat
♦ Bamboo
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Nematodes
♦ Soils
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Phaeohyphomycosis
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant materials
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Cardboard
♦ Wallboard
♦ Wood
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ The teleomorph of Dicyma ampullifera (Ascotricha chartarum) is associated with maxillary sinusitis
Industrial Uses
♦ Biocontrol for Cercosporidium peronatum leaf spot on peanuts
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Ergot alkaloid
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Dung
♦ Seeds
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat         

♦ Plant pathogen causing leaf spot, crown rot, and root rot of various turf grass species

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Water Activity

♦ Most destructive during rainy weather

Mode of Dissemination        

♦ Air currents

♦ Dead grass clippings

♦ Feet

♦ Lawn mowers

♦ Splashing water

Allergenic Potential      

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Rare occurrences causing corneal infections in eyes

Industrial Uses     

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced      

♦ Unknown

Natural Habitat        

♦ Plant material

♦ Seeds

♦ Soil

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Building materials

♦ Dust

♦ Food

Water Activity  

♦ Unknown

Mode of Dissemination 

♦ Wind

Allergenic Potential   

♦ Type I (asthma and hay fever)

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Onchomycosis

Potential Toxins Produced

♦ Asperthecin

♦ Asperugin

♦ Aspergiline

♦ Corycepin

♦ Echinocandin B

♦ Emerin

♦ Emericellin

♦ Nidurufin

♦ Sterigmatocystin

♦ Penicillin

♦ Pentostatin

Other Comments       

♦ Genetically related to (meiosporic state) some Aspergillus species

References      

♦ Gugnani, H.C., Vijayan, V.K., Tyagi P., Sharma, S., Stchigel, A.M., and Guarro, J. 2004. Onychomycosis due to Emericella quadrilineata. J. Clin Microbiol. 42 (2): 914–916

Natural Habitat 

♦ Soils

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Allergenic Potential      

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses  

♦ Emerimicins II, III and IV are antibiotics produced by Emericellopsis microspora

Potential Toxins Produced      

♦ E. minimum (formerly Cephalosporium acremonium) produces Cephalosporin C.

Other Comments          

♦ Teleomorph of Acremonium spp.

Natural Habitat    

♦ Plant Debris

♦ Soils

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Building materials

♦ Jute

♦ Paper

♦ Textiles

Allergenic Potential       

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Engyodontium album causes:

♦ Brain abscess

♦ Keratitis

♦ Native valve endocarditis

Potential Toxins Produced   

♦ Unknown

Natural Habitat  

♦ Plant debris

♦ Soil

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Paper

♦ Textiles

Water Activity 

♦ Aw=0.86-0.90

Mode of Dissemination  

♦ Wind

Allergenic Potential    

♦ Type I (asthma and hay fever)

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced  

♦ Epicorazine A&B

♦ Flavipin

♦ Indole-3-acetonitrile

Natural Habitat        

♦ Plant pathogen that cause “powdery mildew” on many plants. Is an obligate parasite that grows on leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Indoor plants

Water Activity    

♦ Some species can germinate in 0% humidity

Mode of Dissemination 

♦ Wind

Allergenic Potential        

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses     

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced     

♦ Unknown

Other Comments  

♦ Genetically related to (meiosporic state) Oidium

Natural Habitat  

See Aspergillus

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

Furniture

Walls

One of several teleomorphs of Aspergillus

Natural Habitat        

♦ Soil

♦ Water

♦ Saprobe of plants

♦ Decaying Wood

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Water Activity   

♦ Unknown

Mode of Dissemination      

♦ Water Splash

Allergenic Potential     

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Mycetomas

♦ Endocardititis

♦ Subcutaneous lesions

♦ Subcutaneous cysts

♦ Phaeohyphomycosis

Industrial Uses        

♦ Potential Antibiotic

Potential Toxins Produced  

♦ Exophilin A

Other Comments

♦ Known as one of the black yeasts

References 

♦ Doshida J, Hasegawa H, Onuki H, Shimidzu N. 1996. Exophilin A, a new antibiotic from a marine microorganism Exophiala pisciphila. J Antibiot (Tokyo).

49(11):1105-1109

Natural Habitat    

♦ Pathogen to Grasses, causes root rot of corn

♦ Soils

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Indoor building materials

Water Activity   

♦ Unknown

Mode of Dissemination 

♦ Wind

Allergenic Potential    

♦ Causes allergic sinusitis

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Endocarditis

♦ Mycotic keratitis

♦ Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis

♦ Osteomyelitis and sinusitis in both normal and immunocompromised patients

Industrial Uses  

♦ Potential biocontrol of weeds

Potential Toxins Produced   

♦ Monocerin

♦ Phytotoxin

References

♦ Zhang, W., and Watson, A.K. 2000. Isolation and partial characterization of phytotoxins produced by Exserohilum monoceras, a potential bioherbicide for control of Echinochloa species. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of weeds 4-14 July 1999, Montana State University, Boseman, Monatana USA. Neal R. Spencer [ed.] pp.125-130

Natural Habitat  

♦ Plant matter

♦ Leaf litter

Allergenic Potential     

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced  

♦ Unknown

Natural Habitat    

♦ Soil

♦ Plant pathogen causing root rot, stem rot, and wilt of many ornamental and crop plants.

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Often found in humidifiers

♦ Wet, cellulose-based building materials

Water Activity       

♦ Aw=0.86-0.91

Mode of Dissemination  

♦ Insects

♦ Water droplets, rain

♦ Wind when spores become dry

Allergenic Potential    

♦ Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma)

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Esophageal cancer is believed to happen after consumption of F. moniliforme infected corn

♦ Keratitis

♦ Endophthalmitis

♦ Onychomycosis

♦ Cutaneous infections

♦ Mycetoma

♦ Sinusitis

♦ Pulmonary infections

♦ Endocarditis

♦ Peritonitis

♦ Central venous catheter infections

♦ Septic arthritis

♦ Neurological disease in horses after consumption of F. moniliforme infected corn

♦ Respiratory disease in pigs after consumption of F. moniliforme infected corn

Industrial Uses          

♦ Biological Weapon

Potential Toxins Produced  

♦ Trichothecenes

♦ Zearalenone

♦ Fumonisins

Other Comments  

♦ Major plant pathogen

References         

♦ Atlas of Moulds in Europe causing respiratory Allergy, Foundation for Allergy Research in Europe, Edited by Knud Wilken-Jensen and Suzanne Gravesen, ASK Publishing, Denmark, 1984

Natural Habitat     

♦ Grows on conifers and hardwoods worldwide, causing white rot, root rot, and stem rot

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Water Activity           

♦ Unknown

Mode of Dissemination        

♦ Wind

Allergenic Potential      

♦ Ganoderma species are known to cause allergies in people on a worldwide scale

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses     

♦ Biopulping of wood for the paper industry

♦ Potential medicinal use due to:

  1. Inhibition of Ras dependent cell transformation,
  2. antifibrotic activity,
  3. immunomodulating activity,
  4. free-radicle scavenging.

Potential Toxins Produced   

♦ Unknown

Other Comments      

♦ Used in traditional Chinese medicine as an herbal supplement

♦ It is also known as a “shelf fungus” because the fruiting body forms a stalk-less shelf on the sides of trees and logs

♦ It is sometimes called “artists conk” because when you scratch the white pores of the fruiting body, the white rubs away and exposes the brown hyphae underneath. Thus, pictures can be produced on the fruiting body

References       

♦ References: Craig, R.L., Levetin, E. 2000. Multi-year study of Ganoderma aerobiology.

Aerobiologia 16: 75-81.

Natural Habitat    

♦ Dung

♦ Soil

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Allergenic Potential  

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Causes superficial infection of skin and nails

Potential Toxins Produced     

♦ Unknown

Natural Habitat     

♦ Normal flora in humans

♦ Soil

♦ Plants

♦ Water

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Foods such as fruits and grains

♦ Milk and other dairy products

♦ Paper

♦ Textiles

Water Activity 

♦ Aw=0.90

Mode of Dissemination  

♦ Air currents

Allergenic Potential    

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Geotrichum causes diseases known as geotrichosis:

♦ Intestinal tract

♦ alimentary and cutaneous infections

♦ bronchial and pulmonary infections

♦ oral

♦ vaginal

Industrial Uses    

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced

♦ Unknown

References             

♦ Mould Allergy, Yousef Al-Doory and Joanne F. Domson, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1984. 287 p

Natural Habitat                        

♦ Soil

♦ Decaying plant tissue

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Water Activity                     

♦ Unknown

Mode of Dissemination           

♦ Water droplets

♦ Insects

Allergenic Potential                  

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses         

♦ Gliocladium virens GL-21 is used as a biological control against plant pathogenic fungi

Potential Toxins Produced       

♦ Gliotoxin is a metabolite of Gliocladium deliquescens[/accordion_item]

Natural Habitat                  

♦ Causes rot on potatoes

♦ Plant litter

♦ Soil

♦ Wood

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Textiles

♦ Water damaged areas

Allergenic Potential       

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced       

♦ Unknown

Other Comments          

♦ G. macrocylindrica is a mycoparasite of Beltrania rhombica

Natural Habitat                        

♦ Decaying plant matter (fungicolous)

Allergenic Potential                  

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced       

♦ Unknown

Natural Habitat                

♦ Mycoparasite of Ophiostoma and Certatosystis (fungicolous)

♦ Rotting wood

♦ Soils

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Structural lumber

Mode of Dissemination   

♦ Insects

Allergenic Potential 

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses   

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced     

♦ Unknown

Natural Habitat    

♦ Dung

♦ Seeds

♦ Soils

♦ Woody plant tissue

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Water Activity     

♦ Unknown

Mode of Dissemination   

♦ Beetles when mitosporic state of Ophiostoma ulmi

Allergenic Potential      

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses 

♦ GR135402, a compound with antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, has been isolated from a fermentation broth of Graphium putredinis

Potential Toxins Produced 

♦ Unknown

Other Comments   

♦ There have not been any reports of human infections with Graphium species, however, it is a mitosporic state of Pseudoallescheria boydii which causes subcutaneous mycoses in man

Natural Habitat     

♦ Pathogen of turfgrass causing crown rot and leaf spot diseases

♦ Pathogen of maize causing Northern leaf blight

♦ Pathogen of potatoes causing silver scurf disease

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Water Activity    

♦ Unknown

Mode of Dissemination   

♦ Water Splash

♦ Foot traffic

♦ Lawn mowers

♦ Grass Clippings

Allergenic Potential    

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses

♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced       

♦ Helminthosporoside

♦ Helminthosporal

Other Comments      

♦ This name is no longer in use. The genus Helminthosporium is now Bipolaris

References           

♦ Steiner GW, Strobel GA. 1971. J Biol Chem. 246(13):4350-4357

♦ Sommereyns G, Closset JL. 1977. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 85(2):431-433

Natural Habitat   

♦ Soils

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

♦ Unknown

Allergenic Potential 

♦ Unknown

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

♦ Unknown

Industrial Uses       

♦ Hyalodendrin is an antibiotic produced by Hyalodendron

♦ Hyalodendrosides A and B are anti-fungal products

Potential Toxins Produced       

♦ Triterpenoid glycoside, hyalodendroside A (1)

♦ Triterpenoid glycoside, hyalodendroside B (2)

Natural Habitat
♦ Pathogen of brassica plants
♦ Pathogen of oilseed rape
♦ Pathogen of wheat
♦ Dead plant materials
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Seed borne transmission
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I
♦ Type III
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Mycetoma
♦ Phaeohyphomycosis
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant materials
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
♦ Sheetrock
♦ Wood
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Dechlorogriseofulvin
♦ Epidechlorogriseofulvin
♦ Griseofulvins
♦ Memnopeptide A
♦ Trichodermol
♦ Trichodermin
Other Comments
♦ Griseofulvin used an anti-dermatophyte drug and is commercially available.
♦ DNA evidence demonstrated that all Memnoniella fungi are Stachybotrys.
Natural Habitat
♦ Soil
♦ Soybeans
♦ Sunflower seeds
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Drywall
♦ Wood
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Brain abscess in immunocompromised patients
♦ Cutaneous lesions
♦ Mycetomas
♦ Onychomycosis
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown

Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Microascus is the sexual state (teleomorph) of Scopulariopsis

Natural Habitat
♦ Plant pathogen on hickory and walnut trees causing downy leafspot.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Water splash
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ This is an obsolete name. Most Monilia are now referred to as Candida (please see description)
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
♦ Seeds
♦ Soil
♦ Sugar cane
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Water splash
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown at this time
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ M. wolfii is an important casual agent of bovine mycotic abortion, pneumonia and systemic mycosis
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying fruits and vegetables
♦ Dung
♦ Plants
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Fruit
♦ Leftover foods
♦ Building Materials
♦ Carpet Dust
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.90-0.94
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Water Splash
♦ Wind disseminated
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Zygomycosis in immunocompromised patients
Industrial Uses
♦ Proteases from M. pusillus and M. mehei are used in cheese fermentation
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Produces zygomycete sporangiospores
Natural Habitat
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Dead agaric mushrooms
♦ Grasses
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Rarely found indoors
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Insects
♦ Water splash
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Trichothecene mycotoxins
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying logs
♦ Dead leaves
♦ Dung
♦ Lawns
♦ Mulched flower beds
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Rotting lumber
Water Activity
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Insects
♦ Water
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Young sporophores of one genera (Enteridium lycoperdon) are fried and eaten in Mexico, and the dish is called caca de luna
♦ Myxomycetes are not members of the Kingdom Fungi. This is due to morphological differences and DNA evidence
Natural Habitat
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Decomposing carpets
♦ Paper
♦ Wet drywall
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Myxotrichum stipitatum produces:
♦ Clavatoic acid
♦ Myxostiolide
♦ Myxostiol
Other Comments
♦ The toxins produced by M. stipitatum are all plant growth regulators
Natural Habitat
♦ Fruits
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Fruits
♦ Heat processed fruit products
Allergenic Potential
♦ Similar to Aspergillus spp.
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Mycotic keratitis
♦ N. pseudofischeri is known to cause Osteomyelitis
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Azaspirene
Other Comments
♦ Neosartorya is a teleomorphic (sexual) state of Aspergillus. There are multiple teleomorphs for Aspergillus.
Natural Habitat
♦ Common on live or dead grass
♦ Seeds
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Forcibly ejected
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Keratitis
♦ Skin lesions
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown metabolite reported with some toxic properties
Natural Habitat
♦ Endophytic in some trees causing wood rot disease
♦ Dead stems of trees
♦ Herbaceous plants
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Allergic sinusitis
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Nodulisporic acid (a indole terpene)
Other Comments
♦ Nodulisporic acid has insecticidal properties and could potentially be used as an insecticide
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Causes systemic infections
♦ Causes lung abscesses
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
♦ Soils
♦ Wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Wood structures
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Contaminant of edible mushroom cultures. Asexual state of Peziza
Natural Habitat
♦ Leaf litter
♦ Peat
♦ Wood
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
♦ Textiles
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Forms mycorrhizae on Ericaceae
Natural Habitat
♦ It is an obligate parasite on many plant varieties causing powdery mildew disease.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Houseplants
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Asexual state of Erysiphe
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Insects
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Optical Lenses
♦ Leather
♦ Paper
♦ PVC
♦ Jute Fibers
♦ Tobacco
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.79
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ P. variotii causes paecilomycosis (symptoms include keratitis, cellulitis, and alveolitis).
♦ Corneal ulcers, keratitis, and endophthalmitis can occur after extended contact lense use or eye surgery due to Paecilomyces infection
Industrial Uses
♦ Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is currently marketed as a biocontrol insecticide
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Byssochlamic acid
♦ Ferrirubin
♦ Fusigen
♦ Indole-3-acetic acid
♦ Paecilotoxins
♦ Patulin.variotin
♦ Viriditoxin
Other Comments
♦ P. crustaceus and P. variotii can grow well at temperatures as high as 50°C
Natural Habitat
♦ Soil
♦ Seed
♦ Cereal crops
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Foods (blue mold on cereals, fruits, vegetables, dried foods)
♦ House dust
♦ Fabrics
♦ Leather
♦ Wallpaper
♦ Wallpaper glue
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.78-0.86
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
♦ Insects
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Penicilliosis
Industrial Uses
♦ P. chrysogenum for the antibiotic penicillin
♦ P. griseofulvum for the antibiotic griseofulvin a
♦ P. roquefortii for Roquefort cheese
♦ P. camemberti for Camembert cheese
♦ Brie, Gorgonzola, and Danish Blue cheese are also the products of Penicillium
♦ Used to cure ham and salami
♦ Production of organic acids such as fumaric, oxalic, gluconic, and gallic
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Citrinin
♦ Citreoviridin
♦ Cyclopiazonic acid
♦ Fumitremorgen B
♦ Grisiofulvin
♦ Janthitrems
♦ Mycophenolic acid
♦ Paxilline
♦ Penitrem A
♦ Penicillic acid
♦ Ochratoxins
♦ Roquefortine C
♦ Secalonic acid D
♦ Verruculogen
♦ Verrucosidin
♦ Viomellein
♦ Viridicatumtoxin
♦ Xanthomegnin
Other Comments
♦ Penicillium is one of the most common genera of fungi
References
♦ Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims, C.W., Blackwell, M. 1996. John Wiley and Sons
Natural Habitat
♦ Grasses
♦ Sedges
♦ Rushes
♦ Dead herbaceous plant material
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Periconia circinata produces Periconin A and Periconin B (both are biologically inactive)
♦ P. circinata also produces Peritoxins A and B
References
♦ V Macko, M B Stimmel, T J Wolpert, L D Dunkle, W Acklin, R Bänteli, B Jaun, and D Arigoni. 1992.Structure of the host-specific toxins produced by the fungal pathogen Periconia circinata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 89(20): 9574–9578
Natural Habitat
♦ Obligate pathogen causing Downy Mildew on many types of plants. May be seen on outdoor samples.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Houseplants
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant litter
♦ Rotting wood
♦ Damp Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Often found in basements and in wet carpets
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown. Asexual state of Oedocephalum/Chromelosporium
Natural Habitat
♦ Bark from many types of trees
♦ Orchids
♦ Wood
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
♦ Soil
♦ Plant tissue
♦ Water
♦ Wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Infected plant debris
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Chromoblastomycosis in temperate to sub-tropical climates
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Cucurbits (causing foliar disease)
♦ Conifers (resulting in blight)
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Butter
♦ Ceiling tiles
♦ Cement
♦ Floor tiles
♦ Paint
♦ Rice
♦ Rubber
♦ Wood
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Splash when wet
♦ Insect and wind when dry
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Phaeohyphomycosis in immunocompromised patients
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Leaf litter
♦ Soils
♦ Tree bark
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
Water Activity
♦ Requires high moisture level for spore germination
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Etiologic agent in immunocompromised patients
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Cyclodepsipeptides
♦ Sporidesmin
♦ Sporidesmolides
Natural Habitat
♦ Leaves
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Allergenic potential in this genus is not well understood, and is currently being studied.
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Decays structural timber in buildings
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Red Poria (P. cocos) is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Resupinate
Polyporaceae
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant pathogen to a variety of plants including tomatoes and some cucurbits.
♦ Plant debris
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Water splash
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Pyrenochaeta romeroi has been associated with mycetoma
♦ Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis infects nails
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying wood
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Wood
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Chromoblastomycosis
♦ Fungemia
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
♦ Fruits- causing rhizopus rot on stone fruits and strawberries
♦ Soils
♦ Vegetables
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Stored fruits and vegetables
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.93
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Causal agent of zygomycosis in immunocompromised, malnourished or severely burned people
Industrial Uses
♦ Used to ferment rice into miso
♦ Used to ferment soybeans to tempeh and sufu
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Rhizopus oryzae produces agroclavine (an ergot alkaloid toxic to mammals)
Natural Habitat
♦ Air
♦ Dairy products
♦ Fruit juice
♦ Soil
♦ Water
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Carpeting
♦ Cooling coils
♦ Humidifiers
♦ Water tanks
Allergenic Potential
♦ Reported to be allergenic
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Meningitis endocarditis, Ventriculitis, Peritonitis, Endophthalmitis Central venous catheter-infections, Fungemia, and Sepsis have been reported in immunocompromised patients
♦ Rhodotorula rubra is a common airborne contaminant of skin, lungs, urine and feces
Industrial Uses
♦ Mannan produced by Rhodotorula is useful for serological diagnosis for leptospirosis (a bacterial disease)
♦ Carotenoid production for the food industry
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
References
♦ Matsuo K., Isogai, E., Araki, Y. 2000. Utilization of Exocellular Mannan from Rhodotorula glutinis as an Immunoreactive Antigen in Diagnosis of Leptospirosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 38(10): 3750-3754
Natural Habitat
♦ Rusts are parasitic to many types of plants
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown- rust fungi require a living plant host for growth
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
♦ Forcible Ejection
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I. (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ There are 5000 known species of rusts belonging to at least 150 different genera
♦ Rusts are the cause of great economic losses on many cultivated plants
♦ Ancient Romans believed the god Robigus was responsible for rust disease on crops and attempted to ward off rust disease by celebrating Robigus in an annual festival
References
♦ Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims, C.W., Blackwell, M. 1996. John Wiley and Sons
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Dung
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Subcutaneous infections
♦ Osteomyelitis
♦ S. prolificans causes phaeohyphomycosis
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying deciduous trees
♦ Logs
♦ Stumps
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Plaster
♦ Wood
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Chronic lung disease
♦ Meningitis
♦ Onychomycosis
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ This fungus goes dormant in dry weather and revives itself when it rains. It can remain dormant for as many as 50 years and will unroll their gills and release spores when moistened.
Natural Habitat
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Scolecobasidium constrictum is a biocontrol agent of clover cyst nematode
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Scolecobasidium humicola, causes phaeohyphomycosis in fish, and cutaneous lesions in tortoises
Natural Habitat
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Dairy products
♦ Fruit
♦ Grain
♦ Meat
♦ Paper
♦ Wood
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Onychomycosis in toe nails
♦ Skin lesions
♦ Mycetoma
♦ Keratitis
♦ Endophthalmitis, invasive sinusitis, pulmonary infections, endocarditis, and brain abscess typically only afflict immunocompromised patients.
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Scopulariopsis brevicaulis produces arsine gas from arsenate dyes found in wallpaper covered with Paris Green
Natural Habitat
♦ Mycoparasitic on Agaric and Bolete mushrooms
♦ Plant tissue
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ S. ampullosporum produces Ampullosporin A
Natural Habitat
♦ Tree bark
♦ Mycoparasite of various other fungi
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Trees, causing dry rot of many types
♦ Syn. Merulius lacrymans
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Lumber structures
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Pathogens of cereals crops, corn, grasses, onion, and sorghum
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown – smut fungi require a living plant host for growth
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
♦ Rain
♦ Shoes
♦ Mowers
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I. (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Galls of Ustilago maydis are considered a delicacy and are known in Mexico as “Huitlacoche” and in the U.S.A. as “maize mushroom”, “Mexican truffles” or “caviar azteca”
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Smut fungi belong to the order Ustilaginales and there are about 4000 known species
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
♦ Seeds
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Forcible ejection
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Commonly used in genetic studies
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Bark of a variety of trees
♦ Dead wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plants
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Diseased plant tissue
♦ Leaves
♦ Rotting Fruit
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Humidifiers
♦ Drain pans
♦ Water tanks
Water Activity
♦ Requires extremely high humidity for growth
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Forcible Ejection
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Dermatitis
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Can be differentiated from Rhodotorula in that ballistoconidia form a mirror- image on an inverted agar plate
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Fiberglass insulation
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Plant matter
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ S. schenckii causes cutaneous infections, ocular mycosis, and sporotrichosis in immunocompromised patients.
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying wood
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ S. pruinosum has been isolated from the respiratory secretions of some patients
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant materials
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Water damaged building materials such as: ceiling tiles, gypsum board, insulation backing, sheet rock, and wall paper
♦ Paper
♦ Textiles
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.94
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Insects
♦ Water
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Cyclosporins
♦ Macrocyclic trichothecenes: roridin E, satratoxin F, G & H, sporidesmin G, trichoverrol, verrucarin J
♦ Stachybotryolactone
Other Comments
♦ Stachybotrys may play a role in the development of sick building syndrome. The presence of this fungus can be significant due to its ability to produce mycotoxins. Exposure to the toxins can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin exposure
Natural Habitat
♦ Dead plant material
♦ Spinach (causing a leaf spot disease)
♦ Wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ May cause phaeohyphomycosis
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Stemphol
Natural Habitat
♦ Bark
♦ Soil
♦ Wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
♦ Soil
♦ Textiles
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Dung
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Leaves
♦ Wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ House Plants
♦ Wood
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Various plants
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Keratitis
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Leaves
♦ Plant roots
♦ Plant litter
♦ Soil
♦ Wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Baskets
♦ Paper
♦ Wicker Furniture
♦ Wood
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Some species cause stains in hardwoods
Natural Habitat
♦ Pine needles
♦ Soils
♦ Wood
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Wood materials
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Keratitis
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying wood
♦ Dead leaves
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
♦ Textiles
♦ Wood (wet)
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Insects
♦ Water splash
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Has occasionally been associated with disease in immunocompromised individuals
Industrial Uses
♦ Biocontrol agent against a variety of plant pathogens
♦ Biproducts of T. viride is used to make beer and wine
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Gliotoxin
♦ Isocyanides
♦ Trichothecene
♦ Trichodermin
♦ T-2 toxin
Natural Habitat
♦ Compost piles
♦ Normal flora of mouth, skin and nails of humans
♦ Soils
♦ Water
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Fungemia in immunocompromised patients
♦ Invasive trichosporonosis
♦ Superficial infections
♦ White piedra
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Corn seeds
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Plant roots
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Food products (flour products, hazelnuts)
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.90
Allergenic Potential
♦ Reported to be allergenic
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Trichothecene mycotoxins
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Insects
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Jute
♦ Paper
♦ Textiles
Allergenic Potential
♦ Reported to be allergenic
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Corneal ulcers
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Natural Habitat
♦ Soil
♦ Plant materials
♦ Soil, dung, paint, grasses, fibers, wood, decaying plant material, paper, and textiles
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Gypsum board
♦ Jute
♦ Paper
♦ Rotten wood
♦ Textiles
♦ Wood
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.89
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Alternaria sensitive allergy sufferers have a multiplied reaction when
Ulocladium and Alternaria are present together.
Natural Habitat
♦ Cereal crops
♦ Grasses
♦ Mycoparasite of some other fungi
♦ These spores are often seen in outdoor samples.
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Unknown
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Ustilago spp. are smut fungi
Natural Habitat
♦ Root pathogenic fungi that cause vascular wilt and other diseases on a variety of plants
♦ Entomopathogenic
♦ Mycopathogenic
♦ Soils
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Paper
♦ Textiles
♦ Wool
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Propagative plant parts
♦ Seeds
♦ Water splash
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Unknown
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Keratitis
Industrial Uses
♦ Produces an antibiotic
♦ Produces an antifungal substance
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Unknown
Other Comments
♦ Verticillium is a major plant disease agent
Natural Habitat
♦ Hay
♦ Soil
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Jam
♦ Salted Fish
♦ Mattresses
♦ Textiles
♦ Wood in crawl spaces
Water Activity
♦ Considered xerophillic
♦ Aw=0.69-0.75
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Unknown
Industrial Uses
♦ Unknown
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Ttryptophol
♦ UCA 1064-beta
♦ Walleminol
Natural Habitat
♦ Decaying plant matter
♦ Decaying animal matter
Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment
♦ Fruits
♦ Vegetables
Water Activity
♦ Aw=0.90-0.95
Mode of Dissemination
♦ Water splash
♦ Wind
Allergenic Potential
♦ Type I (hay fever, asthma)
♦ Type III (hypersensitivity)
Potential Opportunist or Pathogen
♦ Some Zygomycetes can cause zygomycosis in immonocompromised patients. Zygomycosis can occur in the lungs, nasal sinus, brain, eye, skin, and mucous membranes.
Industrial Uses
♦ Depends on genus
Potential Toxins Produced
♦ Depends on genus
Other Comments
♦ The Zygomycetes represent a class of fungi that includes the genera
Rhizopus, Rhizomucor, Mucor, and Absidia
♦ Many are extremely fast growing and can inhibit other fungi when competing for food or space