The Key to Mold Control is Moisture Control

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If mold is a problem in your home, you must clean up the mold and eliminate sources of moisture. The EPA guidelines, “A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture and Your Home” offers homeowners information concerning the causes of mold as well as what to do should you find mold in your residence.

Mold Basics
  • The key to mold control is moisture control.
  • If mold is a problem in your home, you should clean up the mold promptly and fix the water problem.
  • It is important to dry water-damaged areas and items within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth.
Why is mold growing in my home?
Molds are part of the natural environment. Outdoors, molds play a part in nature by breaking down dead organic matter such as fallen leaves and dead trees, but indoors, mold growth should be avoided. Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and float through outdoor and indoor air. Mold may begin growing indoors when mold spores land on surfaces that are wet. There are many types of mold, and none of them will grow without water or moisture.
Can mold cause health problems?

Molds are usually not a problem indoors, unless mold spores land on a wet or damp spot and begin growing. Molds have the potential to cause health problems. Molds produce allergens (substances that can cause allergic reactions), irritants, and in some cases, potentially toxic substances (mycotoxins). Inhaling or touching mold or mold spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Allergic responses include hay fever-type symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, and skin rash (dermatitis).

Allergic reactions to mold are common. They can be immediate or delayed. Molds can also cause asthma attacks in people with asthma who are allergic to mold. In addition, mold exposure can irritate the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs of both mold-allergic and non-allergic people. Symptoms other than the allergic and irritant types are not commonly reported as a result of inhaling mold. Research on mold and health effects is ongoing.

This [guidance] provides a brief overview; it does not describe all potential health effects related to mold exposure. For more detailed information consult a health professional. You may also wish to consult your state or local health department.

How do I get rid of mold?

 It is impossible to get rid of all mold and mold spores indoors; some mold spores will be found floating through the air and in house dust. The mold spores will not grow if moisture is not present. Indoor mold growth can and should be prevented or controlled by controlling moisture indoors. If there is mold growth in your home, you must clean up the mold and fix the water problem. If you clean up the mold, but don’t fix the water problem, then, most likely, the mold problem will come back.

Mold Cleanup

Who should do the cleanup depends on a number of factors. One consideration is the size of the mold problem. If the moldy area is less than about 10 square feet (less than roughly a 3 ft. by 3 ft. patch), in most cases, you can handle the job yourself, follow the guidelines. However:

  • If there has been a lot of water damage, and/or mold growth covers more than 10 square feet, consult EPA’s Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. Although focused on schools and commercial buildings, this document is applicable to other building types.
  • If you choose to hire a contractor (or other professional service provider) to do the cleanup, make sure the contractor has experience cleaning up mold. Check references and ask the contractor to follow the recommendations in EPA’s Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings, the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists (ACGIH), or other guidelines from professional or government organizations.
  • If you suspect that the heating/ventilation/air conditioning (HVAC) system may be contaminated with mold (it is part of an identified moisture problem, for instance, or there is mold near the intake to the system), consult EPA’s guide Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned? before taking further action. Do not run the HVAC system if you know or suspect that it is contaminated with mold – it could spread mold throughout the building.
  • If the water and/or mold damage was caused by sewage or other contaminated water, then call in a professional who has experience cleaning and fixing buildings damaged by contaminated water.
  • If you have health concerns, consult a health professional before starting cleanup.
Mold Cleanup Guidelines

The tips and techniques presented in this section will help you clean up your mold problem. Professional cleaners or remediators may use methods not covered in this publication. Please note that mold may cause staining and cosmetic damage. It may not be possible to clean an item so that its original appearance is restored.

  • Fix plumbing leaks and other water problems as soon as possible. Dry all items completely.
  • Scrub mold off hard surfaces with detergent and water, and dry completely.
  • Absorbent or porous materials, such as ceiling tiles and carpet, may have to be thrown away if they become moldy. Mold can grow on or fill in the empty spaces and crevices of porous materials, so the mold may be difficult or impossible to remove completely.
  • Avoid exposing yourself or others to mold (see discussions: What to Wear When Cleaning Moldy Areas and Hidden Mold).
  • Do not paint or caulk moldy surfaces. Clean up the mold and dry the surfaces before painting. Paint applied over moldy surfaces is likely to peel.
  • If you are unsure about how to clean an item, or if the item is expensive or of sentimental value, you may wish to consult a specialist. Specialists in furniture repair, restoration, painting, art restoration and conservation, carpet and rug cleaning, water damage, and fire or water restoration are commonly listed in phone books. Be sure to ask for and check references. Look for specialists who are affiliated with professional organizations.
 What to Wear When Cleaning Moldy Areas
  • Avoid breathing in mold or mold spores. In order to limit your exposure to airborne mold, you may want to wear an N-95 respirator, available at many hardware stores and from companies that advertise on the Internet. (They cost about $12 to $25.) Some N-95 respirators resemble a paper dust mask with a nozzle on the front, others are made primarily of plastic or rubber and have removable cartridges that trap most of the mold spores from entering.In order to be effective, the respirator or mask must fit properly, so carefully follow the instructions supplied with the respirator. Please note that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that respirators fit properly (fit testing) when used in an occupational setting; consult OSHA for more information (800-321-OSHA or osha.gov).
  • Wear gloves. Long gloves that extend to the middle of the forearm are recommended. When working with water and a mild detergent, ordinary household rubber gloves may be used. If you are using a disinfectant, a biocide such as chlorine bleach, or a strong cleaning solution, you should select gloves made from natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, polyurethane or PVC (see Cleanup and Biocides). Avoid touching mold or moldy items with your bare hands.
  • Wear goggles. Goggles that do not have ventilation holes are recommended. Avoid getting mold or mold spores in your eyes.
How Do I Know When the Remediation or Cleanup is Finished?
  • You must have completely fixed the water or moisture problem before the cleanup or remediation can be considered finished.
  • You should have completed mold removal. Visible mold and moldy odors should not be present. Please note that mold may cause staining and cosmetic damage.
  • You should have revisited the site(s) shortly after cleanup and it should show no signs of water damage or mold growth.
  • People should have been able to occupy or re-occupy the area without health complaints or physical symptoms.
  • Ultimately, this is a judgment call; there is no easy answer. If you have concerns or questions consult our Frequently Asked Questions database and ask a question if you don’t find what you need.
Moisture and Mold Prevention and Control Tips
  • When water leaks or spills occur indoors – act quickly. If wet or damp materials or areas are dried 24-48 hours after a leak or spill happens, in most cases mold will not grow.
  • Clean and repair roof gutters regularly.
  • Make sure the ground slopes away from the building foundation, so that water does not enter or collect around the foundation.
  • Keep air conditioning drip pans clean and the drain lines unobstructed and flowing properly.
  • Keep indoor humidity low. If possible, keep indoor humidity below 60 percent (ideally between 30 and 50 percent) relative humidity. Relative humidity can be measured with a moisture or humidity meter, a small, inexpensive ($10-$50) instrument available at many hardware stores.
  • If you see condensation or moisture collecting on windows, walls or pipes act quickly to dry the wet surface and reduce the moisture/water source. Condensation can be a sign of high humidity.
Actions that will help to reduce humidity:
  • Vent appliances that produce moisture, such as clothes dryers, stoves, and kerosene heaters to the outside where possible. (Combustion appliances such as stoves and kerosene heaters produce water vapor and will increase the humidity unless vented to the outside.)
  • Use air conditioners and/or de-humidifiers when needed.
  • Run the bathroom fan or open the window when showering. Use exhaust fans or open windows whenever cooking, running the dishwasher or dishwashing, etc.
Actions that will help prevent condensation:
  • Reduce the humidity (see preceeding section)
  • Increase ventilation or air movement by opening doors and/or windows, when practical. Use fans as needed.
  • Cover cold surfaces, such as cold water pipes, with insulation.
  • Increase air temperature.
Hidden Mold
Suspicion of hidden mold

You may suspect hidden mold if a building smells moldy, but you cannot see the source, or if you know there has been water damage and residents are reporting health problems. Mold may be hidden in places such as the back side of dry wall, wallpaper, or paneling, the top side of ceiling tiles, the underside of carpets and pads, etc. Other possible locations of hidden mold include areas inside walls around pipes (with leaking or condensing pipes), the surface of walls behind furniture (where condensation forms), inside ductwork, and in roof materials above ceiling tiles (due to roof leaks or insufficient insulation).

Investigating hidden mold problems

Investigating hidden mold problems may be difficult and will require caution when the investigation involves disturbing potential sites of mold growth. For example, removal of wallpaper can lead to a massive release of spores if there is mold growing on the underside of the paper. If you believe that you may have a hidden mold problem, consider hiring an experienced professional.

Biocides are substances that can destroy living organisms. The use of a chemical or biocide that kills organisms such as mold (chlorine bleach, for example) is not recommended as a routine practice during mold cleanup. There may be instances, however, when professional judgment may indicate its use (for example, when immune-compromised individuals are present).In most cases, it is not possible or desirable to sterilize an area; a background level of mold spores will remain – these spores will not grow if the moisture problem has been resolved. If you choose to use disinfectants or biocides, always ventilate the area and exhaust the air to the outdoors. Never mix chlorine bleach solution with other cleaning solutions or detergents that contain ammonia because toxic fumes could be produced.Please note: Dead mold may still cause allergic reactions in some people, so it is not enough to simply kill the mold, it must also be removed.

IAQA Tech Tip: Ideal Temperature

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The ideal indoor temperature means that a person wearing a normal amount of clothing feels neither too cold nor too warm which is important both for one’s well-being and for productivity. When air movement is virtually absent and when relative humidity can be kept at about 50%, the ambient temperature becomes the most critical factor for maintaining comfort indoors. However, temperature preferences vary greatly among individuals and there is no one temperature that can satisfy everyone. The following video by the Indoor Air Quality Association discusses the ideal temperature to be maintained in buildings. For additional information on the IAQA, please visit their website at www.IAQA.org.

 

IAQA Tech Tip: Filter Replacement

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Home ownership includes regular home maintenance. One simple and inexpensive item that can make a huge impact on the efficiency of your system and help improve indoor air quality is regular changing of the HVAC filter. If put off or ignored long enough though, it can lead to an HVAC system that’s inefficient and overworked, resulting in problems and expenses. The following video by the Indoor Air Quality Association discusses when air filters should be replaced. For additional information on the IAQA, please visit their website at www.IAQA.org.

 

 

IAQA Tech Tip: Condensation

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Condensation forms when hot steam or air meets cold air and surfaces, forming droplets on windows, mirrors and hard surfaces. The hotter the water vapor, the more moisture the air can hold and the more condensation will be deposited on cold surfaces. Without the use of effective ventilation, fans, dehumidifiers, etc., this condensation can lead to mold growth. The following video by the Indoor Air Quality Association discussed how condensation can form and solutions to minimize it.For additional information on the IAQA, please visit their website at www.IAQA.org.

Mold growth can be a potential issue when frozen pipes burst.

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Mold has the potential to be a major IAQ issue in the winter when frozen pipes burst.

Extreme cold can cause pipes to freeze and burst, leading to water damage and mold development. Make sure you are prepared to take the necessary steps to avoid frozen water pipes this winter.

Why Do Water Pipes Freeze and Burst?
When temperatures drop below 32 degrees, water in your pipes can freeze. When water freezes, it expands and can cause your pipes to burst. Frozen pipes are much more common along exterior walls and underneath your home, where there is little insulation to prevent freezing.

How Do I Prevent My Pipes from Freezing?
Homeowners can be vigilant against freezing pipes. Pay careful attention to the weather forecast, and perform these simple tasks:
• Insulate Exposed Pipes: Use pipe-insulation to insulate exposed pipes under your home.
• Let Water Drip from Faucets: On especially cold evenings, allow warm water to drip from your kitchen faucet.
• Fix Active Leaks: If water is already leaking from your pipes, freezing temperatures may exasperate the issue. Make sure all leaks are repaired before the cold sets in.
• Open Cabinets: Especially for pipes against exterior walls and in cold areas of your home (basements), open cabinets to expose pipes to heat.
• Close Garage Doors: If water pipes run through your garage, keep the doors closed during the winter.

My Pipes Froze, Now What?
During winter, if you turn your kitchen faucet on only to discover there is no water, you probably have a frozen pipe. Time is of the essence. Mold can develop within 48 hours of the occurrence of water damage. If you have a frozen pipe, follow these steps:
• Find the frozen pipe. Determine if it is leaking or has burst. The culprit will likely be along an exterior wall or under your home.
• If the frozen pipe has not burst, you may be able to thaw it with a hair dryer. Do not try to thaw pipe with an open flame or torch.
• If the pipe has burst, turn off the main water supply. If the leak is near electrical appliances, turn off the main power to those appliances.
• Assess the extent of the damage. Leaking water can be pervasive. Depending on the size and location of the leak, water damage may extend to carpets, walls, and the sub-floor. Determine whether you should call a professional. Err on the side of caution.
• Remove wet furniture, carpet, etc. Use towels to soak up the all of the water.
• Contact a professional, especially if there is evidence water soaked your walls or sub-flooring. A professional water damage expert will extract any water and dry the area air-movers and dehumidifiers. If the water is not properly dried, mold will likely develop.

When Mold Becomes a Problem
Mold can start to grow within as little as 24 hours, so try to dry out the area as soon as possible. If some areas cannot be dried in 24 hours, mold growth is a possibility and may not be visible to the casual observer. If there are concerns about mold due to delayed or extended drying times, NTX Enviro can inspect and test the area for mold spores from suspected or hidden mold growth. Moisture of any kind creates an indoor environment conducive to negative health effects such as allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases. These health effects are usually the result of mold growth, dust mites or several other less common allergens but other possible causes may need to be evaluated. Removing mold before it can potentially impact building occupants’ health will help produce a high indoor air quality environment that promotes greater comfort, productivity and learning. If you have water damage from frozen or burst pipes (or any other source) NTX Enviro can help you determine the nature of the contamination, the extent of damage and develop a plan to remediate the allergen source or the causative issues as well as help prevent future occurrences.